More intro number theory with my son inspired by Martin Weissman’s An Illustrated Theory of Numbers

I’ve been thinking about more ways to use Martin Weissman’s An Illustrated Theory of Numbers with the boys lately:

Today I was looking for a project with my son and flipped open to the chapter on quadratic reciprocity. It had a few introductory ideas that I thought would be fun to share with my younger son.

We first looked at Wilson’s Theorem:

After Wilson’s theorem, we moved on to talking about perfect squares mod a prime. After a fairly long discussion here my son noticed that half of the non-zero number mod a prime are perfect squares:

Finally, I asked him to make a mod 11 multiplication table and we talked through some of the patterns in the table – including that the non-zero numbers had multiplicative inverses:

It was a really fun discussion today. I know next to nothing about number theory, but I really would like to use Weissman’s book more to explore some advanced ideas with the boys.